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Patient Rights and Responsibilities
U.S. Combat Deaths Declined Under 'Golden Hour Policy': Study
U.S. Combat Deaths Declined Under 'Golden Hour Policy': Study WEDNESDAY, Sept. 30, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Faster helicopter transport times helped reduce deaths among U.S. soldiers who suffered serious combat injuries in Afghanistan, researchers say. In 2009, the Pentagon introduced what's known as the Golden Hour Policy, directing that soldiers with critical injuries be transported by helicopter from the battlefield to a treatment center within an hour. The previous standard was two hours. Researcher...
Ultrafast Computed Tomography (Ultrafast CT Scan)
Ultrafast Computed Tomography (Ultrafast CT Scan) (Ultrafast CT, Electron-Beam Computed Tomography, EBCT, Cine CT Scan) Procedure overview Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than standard X-rays. In standard ...
Ureterocele and Ureteral Duplication
Ureterocele and Ureteral Duplication What is a ureterocele? A ureterocele involves the kidney, ureter, and bladder. A normal ureter is one that transports urine from the kidney to the bladder. When a child has a ureterocele, the portion of the ureter closest to the bladder becomes enlarged because the ureter opening is very tiny and obstructs urine outflow. As the urine flow is obstructed, urine backs up in the ureter tube. What is ureteral duplication? Children who have a ureterocele may also have an u...
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
Urinary Tract Infections What are urinary tract infections (UTIs)? Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria along the urinary tract. The urinary tract is made up of 2 kidneys that remove liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine. Narrow tubes called ureters carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. The urine is stored in the bladder. When the bladder is emptied, the urine travels through a tube called the urethra and passes outside the body. Who is affected by urinary tract infections? ...
Urinary Incontinence in Children
Urinary Incontinence in Children (Enuresis) What is urinary incontinence (enuresis)? Urinary incontinence is the loss of bladder control. In children under age 3, it’s normal to not have full bladder control. As children get older, they become more able to control their bladder. When wetting happens in a child who is old enough to control his or her bladder, it’s known as enuresis. Enuresis can happen during the day or at night. Enuresis can be frustrating. But it’s important to be patient and remember ...
Undescended Testes (Cryptorchidism)
Undescended Testes (Cryptorchidism) What is cryptorchidism (undescended testes)? Cryptorchidism (or undescended testes) is a condition seen in newborns when one or both of the male testes have not passed down into the scrotal sac. About 10% of cases involve both testes. Cryptorchidism is more commonly seen in premature males because the testes do not descend from the abdomen to the scrotal sac until the seventh month of fetal development. What causes undescended testes? Undescended testes may occur for ...
Upper Respiratory Infection (URI or Common Cold)
Upper Respiratory Infection (URI or Common Cold) What is an upper respiratory infection (URI)? An upper respiratory infection (URI), also known as the common cold, is one of the most common illnesses, leading to more health care provider visits and absences from school and work than any other illness every year. It is estimated that during a 1-year period, people in the U.S. will suffer 1 billion colds. Caused by a virus that inflames the membranes in the lining of the nose and throat, colds can be the ...
Umbilical Cord Care
Umbilical Cord Care The umbilical cord is the baby's lifeline to the mother during pregnancy. However, it is no longer needed once the baby is born. Within a few minutes after birth, the cord is clamped and cut close to the navel. The clamp helps stop bleeding from the blood vessels in the umbilical cord. A medication is sometimes applied to the cord as part of a baby's first care. This may be a purple dye or another type of antiseptic. However, this practice has been replaced by dry cord care in most U...
Ultrasound in Pregnancy
Ultrasound in Pregnancy What is an ultrasound? An ultrasound scan is a diagnostic technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs. A screening ultrasound is sometimes done during the course of a pregnancy to monitor normal fetal growth and verify the due date. Results of ultrasounds from the first 14 weeks are most accurate in establishing or confirming due dates. Ultrasounds may be done at various times throughout pregnancy for different reasons: In the first tr...
Urinary Tract and Kidney Infections
Urinary Tract and Kidney Infections in Pregnancy A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common medical complication of pregnancy. Untreated, a UTI can cause serious problems in pregnancy. Normal urine is sterile. It contains fluids, salts, and waste products, but is free of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The tissues of the bladder are isolated from urine and toxic substances by a coating that discourages bacteria from attaching and growing on the bladder wall. The main parts of the urinary tract are: ...
Uses of Genetic Testing
Uses of Genetic Testing What are the uses of genetic testing which may be important for me to know? Diagnostic testing Diagnostic testing is used to identify or confirm the diagnosis of a disease or condition in a person or a family. Diagnostic testing gives a "yes" or "no" answer in most cases. It is sometimes helpful in determining the course of a disease and the choice of treatment. Examples of diagnostic testing include chromosome studies, direct DNA studies, and biochemical genetic testing. Predict...
Uniparental Disomy: Prader-Willi Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome
Uniparental Disomy: Prader-Willi Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome What is uniparental disomy? Normally, we inherit one copy of each chromosome pair from our biological mother, and the other copy of the chromosome pair from our biological father. This is called paternal uniparental disomy. Uniparental disomy refers to the situation in which two copies of a chromosome come from the same parent, instead of one copy coming from the mother, and one copy coming from the father. Angelman syndrome (AS) and Prader-Wi...
Ulcerative Colitis in Children
Ulcerative Colitis in Children What is ulcerative colitis? Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which the inner lining of the large intestine (colon or bowel) and rectum become inflamed. Inflammation usually begins in the rectum and lower (sigmoid) intestine and spreads upward to the entire colon. Click image to enlarge The inflammation causes diarrhea, or frequent emptying of the colon. As cells on the surface of the lining of the colon die and slough off, ulcers (open sores) fo...
Underactive Adrenal Glands/Addison's Disease in Children
Underactive Adrenal Glands/Addison's Disease in Children What is Addison's disease? Addison's disease occurs when the two adrenal glands don't make enough steroid hormones, specifically cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol controls the body's metabolism, suppresses inflammatory reactions, and affects immune system functions. Aldosterone regulates sodium and potassium levels. Addison's disease is relatively rare and may first appear at any age. What causes Addison's disease or inadequate corticosteroid pro...
Ultrafast/Electron Beam CT Scan
Ultrafast/Electron Beam CT Scan What is an ultrafast/electron beam CT (computed tomography) scan? In standard X-rays, a beam of energy is aimed at the body part being studied. A plate behind the body part captures the variations of the energy beam after it passes through skin, bone, muscle, and other tissue. While much information can be obtained from a regular X-ray, specific detail about internal organs and other structures is not available. With computed tomography (also called CT or CAT scan), the X...
Urticaria/Hives in Children
Urticaria/Hives in Children What is urticaria? Urticaria, or hives, is a condition in which red, itchy, and swollen areas appear on the skin. Urticaria may last for a short or long time. If it lasts only for a short time, the cause is usually an allergic reaction from eating certain foods or taking certain medications. When urticaria is long-term, the cause is often unknown. Hives can vary in size from one-half inch to several inches in size. Hives can appear all over the body or be limited to one part ...
U.S. Lung Cancer Rates Falling Overall, Study Finds
U.S. Lung Cancer Rates Falling Overall, Study Finds MONDAY, Aug. 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Overall lung cancer rates are dropping, according to a new analysis of nearly a half million Americans with lung cancer. But, the news wasn't all good -- the study also found that the rates of certain types of lung cancer are increasing, according to researchers from the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). Over nearly three decades, the overall lung cancer rate has dropped approximately 12 percent, said the s...
U.S. Hospitals See Big Rise in Drug-Related Suicide Attempts
U.S. Hospitals See Big Rise in Drug-Related Suicide Attempts THURSDAY, Aug. 7, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Drug-related suicide attempts in the United States increased over a recent six-year period, with dramatic increases seen among young and middle-aged adults, health officials reported Thursday. Overall, suicide attempts involving prescription medications and other drugs jumped by 51 percent among people 12 and older between 2005 and 2011, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Admi...
Unwed Parents Should Tie the Knot Before Child Turns 3: Study
Unwed Parents Should Tie the Knot Before Child Turns 3: Study THURSDAY, July 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Unwed parents who plan to get married should do it before their child is 3 so they can create the strongest possible bond, a new study suggests. It's widely believed that unwed parents are most receptive to marriage immediately after their baby's birth, a period that some refer to as the "magic moment." "It turns out the 'magic moment' lasts longer than conventional wisdom has held. And for some subg...
Understanding Heart Disease
Uroflujometría (Estudios del flujo de orina, Prueba de flujo de orina, Estudios urodinámicos) Descripción general del procedimiento ¿Qué es la uroflujometría? La uroflujometría es un procedimiento de detección de diagnóstico sencillo que se utiliza para calcular la velocidad de flujo de orina durante un tiempo. La prueba no es invasiva (no se perfora la piel) y se puede utilizar para evaluar la función de la vejiga y del esfínter. La uroflujometría se realiza mientras una persona orina en un embudo espe...
Ultrasonido abdominal (Ultrasonografía abdominal, Sonografía abdominal, Ecografía abdominal) Descripción general del procedimiento El ultrasonido abdominal es un procedimiento no invasivo (no se perfora la piel) que se utiliza para evaluar los órganos y estructuras dentro del abdomen, tales como el hígado, la vesícula biliar, el páncreas, los conductos biliares, bazo y la aorta abdominal. La tecnología de ultrasonido permite una rápida visualización de los órganos y estructuras abdominales desde fuera d...
Uterine Artery Embolization
Uterine Artery Embolization Procedure overview What is uterine artery embolization? Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a procedure that offers an alternative to traditional surgical removal of uterine fibroids. The procedure may also be referred to as uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). Uterine artery embolization shrinks fibroids by blocking off their blood supply. The blood supply is blocked by injecting very small particles into the arteries that supply the fibroids. The particles stick to the vess...
Uroflowmetry (Urine Flow Studies, Urine Flow Test, Urodynamic Studies) Procedure overview What is uroflowmetry? Uroflowmetry is a simple, diagnostic screening procedure used to calculate the flow rate of urine over time. The test is noninvasive (the skin is not pierced), and may be used to assess bladder and sphincter function. Uroflowmetry is performed by having a person urinate into a special funnel that is connected to a measuring instrument. The measuring instrument calculates the amount of urine, r...
Upper Gastrointestinal Series
Upper Gastrointestinal Series (UGI, Upper GI Series, GI Series, Upper Gastrointestinal Tract X-ray) Procedure overview What is an upper gastrointestinal series? An upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) is a radiographic (X-ray) examination of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (first part of the small intestine) are made visible on X-ray film by a liquid suspension. This liquid suspension may be barium or a water-soluble contrast. If only the pharynx (back of mouth...
Upper Respiratory Disorders
Upper Respiratory Disorders Many different upper respiratory disorders require clinical care by a doctor or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are some of the conditions, for which we have provided a brief overview. Upper Respiratory Infection (URI, or Common Cold) Sinusitis Allergic Rhinitis Stridor Congenital Laryngeal Stridor / Laryngomalacia Pharyngitis/Tonsillitis Influenza (Flu) Epiglottitis Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Croup
Using a Breast Pump
Using a Breast Pump Health considerations when using a breast pump Breast milk is not sterile and its anti-infective properties hinder the growth of bacteria. Still, you do not want to introduce "outside" bacteria unnecessarily when getting ready to pump, during the actual pumping session, or when storing milk or transporting milk. To minimize the risk of infection, consider the following: Always wash and rinse your hands thoroughly before handling pump parts, your breasts, or the milk collection bottle...
Uso de Drogas Ilegales y el Embarazo
Uso de Drogas Ilegales y el Embarazo Riesgos asociados con el uso de drogas ilegales durante el embarazo: Los efectos que provocan las drogas ilegales, como la cocaína, pueden ser devastadores para un feto. Lamentablemente, muchas mujeres estadounidenses en edad fértil usan algún tipo de droga ilegal. El consumo de drogas ilegales durante el embarazo aumenta el riesgo de la madre de contraer anemia, infecciones de la sangre, del corazón y de la piel, hepatitis y otras enfermedades infecciosas. Además, s...
Una Visión General de Complicaciones Clínicas de Diabetes
Una Visión General de Complicaciones Clínicas de Diabetes ¿Cuáles son las complicaciones clínicas asociadas con la diabetes? Las complicaciones clínicas asociadas con la diabetes pueden incluir las siguientes: La enfermedad cardiovascular La enfermedad cardiovascular, en muchos casos, es causada por la arteriosclerosis - una acumulación en exceso de placa en la pared interior de un vaso sanguíneo grande, la cual restringe el flujo de la sangre. La cardiopatía es la causa principal de las muertes relacio...
Uso del Alcohol y las Personas que Tienen Diabetes
Uso del Alcohol y las Personas que Tienen Diabetes El alcohol y la diabetes: El consumo del alcohol puede bajar los niveles de azúcar en la sangre hasta el punto que causa síntomas de hipoglucemia (azúcar baja en la sangre). Una persona con diabetes debe mantener un registro cuidadoso de sus niveles de azúcar en la sangre al beber alcohol, porque ciertos medicamentos, incluyendo la insulina, también bajan el nivel de la glucosa. Si los niveles son muy bajos, o si el estómago está vacío, el consumo del a...
Urinary Conditions Many disorders of the urinary system require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview. Anatomy of the Urinary System Urinary Incontinence Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Interstitial Cystitis
Upper Respiratory Infections
Upper Respiratory Infections Several upper respiratory infections require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are some of the conditions, for which we have provided a brief overview. Common Cold Influenza Pharyngitis / Tonsillitis Sinusitis
Uterine Cancer What is the uterus? Click Image to Enlarge The uterus, also called the womb, is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen (belly), between the bladder and the rectum. What are parts of the uterus? Cervix. This is the narrow, lower portion of the uterus. Corpus. This is the broader, upper part of the uterus. Serosa. This is the outer layer that covers the uterus. Myometrium. This is the middle layer of the corpus, the thick muscle that expands during pregnancy to hold ...
Uterine Fibroids What are fibroids? Click Image to Enlarge Fibroids are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system. Fibroids, also known as uterine myomas, leiomyomas, or fibromas, are firm, compact tumors that are made of smooth muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue that develop in the uterus. It is estimated that between 20 to 50 percent of women of reproductive age have fibroids, although not all are diagnosed. Some estimates state that up to 30 to 77 percent of women will...
Underactive Adrenal Glands/Addison's Disease
Adrenal Insufficiency/Addison's Disease What is adrenal insufficiency? Adrenal insufficiency is classified as primary or secondary. Primary adrenal insufficiency is known as Addison's disease. Addison's disease occurs when the adrenal glands are damaged and cannot produce enough of the hormone cortisol (hydrocortisone), and often the hormone aldosterone. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland in the brain fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). This leads to ...
Ulcerative Colitis Click Image to Enlarge What is ulcerative colitis? Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which the inner lining of the large intestine (colon or bowel) and rectum become inflamed. Inflammation usually begins in the rectum and lower (sigmoid) intestine and spreads upward to the entire colon. Ulcerative colitis rarely affects the small intestine, except for the lower section, the ileum. The inflammation causes diarrhea, or frequent emptying of the colon. As cells ...
Understanding Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a condition that occurs when the inside of the arteries, the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body, becomes thickened. This can lead to abnormal stiffening and narrowing of the arteries. The condition can start as early as childhood and can lead to many health conditions, including heart disease and stroke. How does it happen? Atherosclerosis is a disease that develops slowly over time. Excess cholesterol and other substanc...
Unusual Cancers of Childhood (PDQ®)
Unusual Cancers of Childhood (PDQ®) General Information About Unusual Cancers of Childhood Unusual cancers of childhood are cancers rarely seen in children. Cancer in children and teenagers is rare. Since 1975, the number of new cases of childhood cancer has slowly increased. The number of deaths from childhood cancer is less than half what it was in 1975. Unusual cancers are so rare that most children's hospitals see fewer than two cases in a year. Because the unusual cancers are so rare, there is not ...
Uterine Sarcoma Description What is sarcoma of the uterus? Sarcoma of the uterus , a very rare kind of cancer in women, is a disease in which cancer ( malignant ) cells start growing in the muscles or other supporting tissues of the uterus. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a baby grows. Sarcoma of the uterus is different from cancer of the endometrium , a disease in which cancer cells start growing in the lining of the uterus (refer to the PDQ summary on Endometrial Cancer Treatment for...
Urethral Cancer Description What is cancer of the urethra? Cancer of the urethra , a rare type of cancer, is a disease in which cancer ( malignant ) cells are found in the urethra. The urethra is the tube that empties urine from the bladder , the hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. In women, the urethra is about 1 1/2 inches long and opens to the outside of the body above the vagina. In men, the urethra is about 8 inches long and goes through the prostate gland and then through the peni...
upper extremity The part of the body that includes the arm, wrist, and hand.
ultraviolet A radiation
ultraviolet A radiation Invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun. Ultraviolet A radiation also comes from sun lamps and tanning beds. Ultraviolet A radiation may cause premature aging of the skin and skin cancer. It may also cause problems with the eyes and the immune system. Skin specialists recommend that people use sunscreens that protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation. In medicine, ultraviolet A radiation also comes from special lamps or a laser and is used to treat ce...
ultraviolet B radiation
ultraviolet B radiation Invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun. Ultraviolet B radiation causes sunburn, darkening and thickening of the outer layer of the skin, and melanoma and other types of skin cancer. It may also cause problems with the eyes and the immune system. Skin specialists recommend that people use sunscreens that protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation. In medicine, ultraviolet B radiation also comes from special lamps or a laser and is used to treat certain...
ultraviolet C radiation
ultraviolet C radiation Invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun. Most ultraviolet C radiation from the sun is blocked from the Earth’s surface by the ozone layer. In medicine, ultraviolet C radiation may also come from special lamps or a laser and is used to kill germs or to help heal wounds. It is also used to treat certain skin conditions such as psoriasis, vitiligo, and skin nodules of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma Also called UVC radiation.
UVC radiation Invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun. Most UVC radiation from the sun is blocked from the Earth’s surface by the ozone layer. In medicine, UVC radiation may also come from special lamps or a laser and is used to kill germs or to help heal wounds. It is also used to treat certain skin conditions such as psoriasis, vitiligo, and skin nodules of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma Also called ultraviolet C radiation.
upstaging In cancer, changing the stage used to describe a patient’s cancer from a lower stage (less extensive) to a higher stage (more extensive). Upstaging is based on the results of additional staging tests. It is important to know the stage of the disease in order to plan the best treatment.
uPA An enzyme that is made in the kidney and found in the urine. A form of this enzyme is made in the laboratory and used to dissolve blood clots or to prevent them from forming. Also called u-plasminogen activator, urokinase, and urokinase-plasminogen activator.
u-plasminogen activator An enzyme that is made in the kidney and found in the urine. A form of this enzyme is made in the laboratory and used to dissolve blood clots or to prevent them from forming. Also called uPA, urokinase, and urokinase-plasminogen activator.
urokinase-plasminogen activator An enzyme that is made in the kidney and found in the urine. A form of this enzyme is made in the laboratory and used to dissolve blood clots or to prevent them from forming. Also called u-plasminogen activator, uPA, and urokinase.
urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-derived peptide A6
urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-derived peptide A6 A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-derived peptide A6 is a small piece of a protein called urokinase (an enzyme that dissolves blood clots or prevents them from forming). It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of antimetastatic agent. Also called A6.
upper gastrointestinal series
upper gastrointestinal series A series of x-ray pictures of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). The x-ray pictures are taken after the patient drinks a liquid containing barium sulfate (a form of the silver-white metallic element barium). The barium sulfate coats and outlines the inner walls of the upper gastrointestinal tract so that they can be seen on the x-ray pictures. Also called upper GI series.
Ultram A drug used to treat moderate to severe pain in adults. It binds to opioid receptors in the central nervous system. Ultram is a type of analgesic agent and a type of opioid. Also called tramadol hydrochloride.
urticaria Itchy, raised red areas on the skin. Urticaria are caused by a reaction to certain foods, drugs, infections, or emotional stress. Also called hives.
urea/lactic acid-based cream
urea/lactic acid-based cream A substance being studied in the treatment of hand-foot syndrome (a condition caused by chemotherapy and marked by tingling, numbness, and red, peeling skin). Urea/lactic acid-based cream is a moisturizer that may help break down the hardened protein in dry, scaly skin and relieve these symptoms.
uveal tract The middle layer of the wall of the eye. The uveal tract has 3 main parts: (1) the choroid (the tissue layer filled with blood vessels); (2) the ciliary body (the ring of muscle tissue that changes the size of the pupil and the shape of the lens); and (3) the iris (the colored part of the eye). Also called uvea.
unclassified variant A variation in a genetic sequence whose association with disease risk is unknown. Also called variant of uncertain significance, variant of unknown significance, and VUS.
uninformative A negative test result in an individual where a clearly deleterious mutation has not been found in any family members. The genetic risk status of such an individual must be interpreted in the context of his or her personal and family history. Also called inconclusive and indeterminate.
UFT A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It is a combination of tegafur and uracil. The tegafur is taken up by the cancer cells and breaks down into 5-FU, a substance that kills tumor cells. The uracil causes higher amounts of 5-FU to stay inside the cells and kill them. UFT is a type of antimetabolite. Also called Ftorafur, tegafur-uracil, and Uftoral.
Uftoral A substance being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer. It is a combination of tegafur and uracil. The tegafur is taken up by the cancer cells and breaks down into 5-FU, a substance that kills tumor cells. The uracil causes higher amounts of 5-FU to stay inside the cells and kill them. Uftoral is a type of antimetabolite. Also called Ftorafur, tegafur-uracil, and UFT.
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Copyright 2015. All rights reserved.