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Patient Rights and Responsibilities
Bike Helmets Protect Against Severe Brain Injury, Study Says
Bike Helmets Protect Against Severe Brain Injury, Study Says THURSDAY, Oct. 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Wearing a bicycle helmet significantly reduces the risk of serious brain injury and death from a crash, a new study shows. Researchers analyzed the medical records of more than 6,200 people who suffered a traumatic brain injury in a cycling crash. Of those patients, just over one-quarter were wearing helmets. Compared to those without a helmet, patients with a helmet were 58 percent less likely to hav...
Bedtime Texting May Be Hazardous to Teens' Health
Bedtime Texting May Be Hazardous to Teens' Health WEDNESDAY, Oct. 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many American teens text in bed, leading to lost sleep, daytime drowsiness and poorer school performance, a new study says. Researchers from New Jersey looked at nearly 3,200 middle and high school students in the state. They found that nearly 62 percent of the kids used their smartphones in some capacity after bedtime; nearly 57 percent texted, tweeted or messaged in bed; and nearly 21 percent awoke to texts. ...
Blood Tests May Predict Pregnancy Risks for Women With Lupus
Blood Tests May Predict Pregnancy Risks for Women With Lupus TUESDAY, Sept. 29, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Blood tests may identify women with lupus who are at high risk for complications during pregnancy, according to a new study. Lupus is an immune system disorder known to increase the chances of pregnancy problems such as preeclampsia and miscarriage. This new research found that monitoring for certain "biomarkers" -- or indicators -- in the blood of lupus patients during early pregnancy can identify t...
Bullied Teens Who Exercise May Lower Suicide Risk, Study Finds
Bullied Teens Who Exercise May Lower Suicide Risk, Study Finds FRIDAY, Sept. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Regular exercise may lower bullied teens' risk of suicide, researchers report. The researchers analyzed data from more than 13,500 U.S. high school students and found that being physically active four or more days a week reduced bullied teens' suicidal thoughts and attempts by 23 percent. The researchers also found that about 30 percent of bullied teens said they had felt sad for two or more weeks i...
Brucella Antibody (CSF)
Brucella Antibody (CSF) Does this test have other names? CSF agglutination test What is this test? This test looks at fluid from your spinal cord to find out if you have an illness called brucellosis. Brucellosis is an infectious disease usually caused by handling animals or milk products infected with the brucella bacteria. If you have brucellosis, your body will make certain antibodies when it tries to fight these germs. Brucella antibodies can usually be found in your blood, liver, spleen, lymph node...
Brucella Antibody Does this test have other names? Brucella agglutination titer, Brucella antibody titer, Brucella-specific agglutination, Brucella microagglutination test, BMAT, standard tube agglutination test What is this test? This is a blood test for brucellosis. Brucellosis is an infectious disease usually caused by handling animals or milk products infected with the brucella bacteria. If you have brucellosis, your body will make certain antibodies to fight the brucella bacteria. This test looks f...
BRCA Does this test have other names? BRCA gene 1, BRCA gene 2, breast cancer susceptibility gene 1, breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 What is this test? This blood test checks for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Mutations in these genes can raise the risk for certain cancers, especially breast cancer (in both men and women) and ovarian cancer in women. In both men and women, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations raise the risk for other types of cancers. The BRCA genes are the most common cause of gene-r...
Bartonella Antibody Does this test have other names? Cat scratch disease blood test, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) for IgM and IgG against B. henselae What is this test? This blood test screens for exposure to Bartonella henselae , the bacteria that cause cat scratch disease. These bacteria are spread by cats, especially kittens, which are more likely to be infected. The disease is usually fairly mild and clears up without treatment, but it can be more serious for people with a weakened immun...
Bilirubin (Amniotic Fluid)
Bilirubin (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? Amniocentesis, Amniotic fluid bilirubin optical density, OD What is this test? This test is done to see how well your baby is developing inside you. The liquid that surrounds the baby inside your womb is called amniotic fluid. Health care providers check the fluid for a pigment called bilirubin to see whether your baby has a blood type that is incompatible with yours. When this happens, it may cause the baby to develop severe anemia or other pr...
Blood Clotting Disorders in Children
Blood Clotting Disorders in Children Clotting is the result of a series of chemical changes in blood that are intended to help the body repair damaged blood vessels. Platelets in the blood form a small mass that helps seal a wound and stop the flow of blood. Click to Enlarge The body also relies on proteins called clotting factors. These create a web of threads to secure the platelet "plug" and hold the blood clot in place. A blood clot that forms when it's not needed can cause serious problems. The clo...
Burners and Stingers Syndrome in Young Athletes
Burners and Stingers Syndrome in Young Athletes If your young athlete complains of a pain in the shoulder or neck that causes a burning or stinging sensation down one arm to the hand, he or she may have burners and stingers syndrome. What is the cause? Burners and stingers syndrome is usually caused by an injury during practice or competition. The most typical injury occurs when a youngster falls or takes a blow to the neck or shoulder. The collision often pushes the head sharply to the side and down, p...
Back Pain in Pregnancy
Back Pain in Pregnancy Why is back pain so common in pregnancy? One of the most common complaints during pregnancy is back pain. In fact, it's estimated that more than half of all women experience some degree of back discomfort. Most back pain is related to the physical changes that happen during pregnancy, including hormones, changes in the center of gravity, and posture. Unfortunately, it typically gets worse as pregnancy progresses. What causes back pain during pregnancy? Throughout pregnancy, hormon...
Bortezomib Solution for injection
Bortezomib Solution for injection What is this medicine? BORTEZOMIB (bor TEZ oh mib) is a chemotherapy drug. It slows the growth of cancer cells. This medicine is used to treat multiple myeloma, and certain lymphomas, such as mantle-cell lymphoma. How should I use this medicine? This medicine is for injection into a vein or for injection under the skin. It is given by a health care professional in a hospital or clinic setting. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Spe...
Betaxolol Hydrochloride Oral tablet
Betaxolol Hydrochloride Oral tablet What is this medicine? BETAXOLOL (be TAX oh lol) is a beta-blocker. Beta-blockers reduce the workload on the heart and help it to beat more regularly. This medicine is used to treat high blood pressure. How should I use this medicine? Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. You can take this medicine with or without food. Take your doses at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed...
Busulfan Solution for injection
Busulfan Solution for injection What is this medicine? BUSULFAN (byoo SUL fan) is a chemotherapy drug. It is used prior to a stem cell transplant in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. How should I use this medicine? This drug is given as an infusion into a vein. It is administered in a hospital or clinic by a specially trained health care professional. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for selected conditions, precautions...
Bupropion Hydrochloride Oral tablet, extended release 12 hour [Depression/Mood Disorders]
Bupropion Hydrochloride Oral tablet, extended release 12 hour [Depression/Mood Disorders] What is this medicine? BUPROPION (byoo PROE pee on) is used to treat depression. How should I use this medicine? Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. You can take it with or without food. If it upsets your stomach, take it with food. Do not cut, crush or chew this medicine. Take your medicine at regular intervals. If you take this medicine more than onc...
Budesonide Oral tablet, extended-release
Budesonide Oral tablet, extended-release What is this medicine? BUDESONIDE (bue DES oh nide) is a corticosteroid. It is used in the treatment of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis which are types of inflammatory bowel disease. How should I use this medicine? Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Do not cut, chew, crush, or break open this medicine. Take your dose in the morning. Take your doses at regular intervals. Do not take your medic...
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (MRI Scan of the Breast) Click Image to Enlarge Procedure overview What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of a large magnet, radio waves, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body. How does an MRI work? The MRI machine is a large, cylindrical (tube-shaped) machine that creates a strong magnetic field around the patient. The magnetic field,...
Breast-Conserving Surgery (Breast Conservation Therapy, BCT, Lumpectomy, Segmental Mastectomy, Partial Mastectomy, Quadrantectomy) Procedure overview Click to Enlarge Breast-conserving surgery may be used as a part of a treatment plan for breast cancer. During breast-conserving surgery, the cancerous lump and a portion of the breast tissue around the cancerous lump are removed. However, the breast itself remains intact. The surgeon may also remove some of the lymph nodes under the arm to determine if th...
Breast Scan (Breast Scintigraphy, Scintimammography, Radionuclide Breast Imaging, Molecular Breast Imaging) Procedure overview What is a breast scan? A breast scan is a specialized radiology procedure used to assess the breasts when other examinations have been inconclusive. Click Image to Enlarge A breast scan is a type of nuclear radiology procedure. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive substance is used during the procedure to assist in the examination of the breasts. The radioactive substa...
Breast Ultrasound (Breast Ultrasonography, Breast Sonogram, Mammographic Ultrasound, Sonomammography, Ultrasound Mammography) Procedure overview What is breast ultrasound? Breast ultrasound is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess the breasts. Ultrasound technology allows quick visualization of the breast tissue. Ultrasound may also be used to assess blood flow to areas inside the breasts. The examination is often used along with mammography. Click Image to Enlarge Breast ultr...
Breast Biopsy Procedure overview What is a breast biopsy? A biopsy is a procedure used to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope. A breast biopsy is a procedure in which samples of breast tissue are removed with a special biopsy needle or during surgery to see if cancer or other abnormal cells are present. Biopsies may be done under local or general anesthesia. There are several types of breast biopsy procedures. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location a...
Bone Marrow Biopsy
Bone Marrow Biopsy (Biopsy-Bone Marrow, Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy) Procedure overview What is a bone marrow biopsy? In the center of most large bones there is a soft tissue (called bone marrow) that makes most of the body's blood cells. The marrow is a network of tissue that contains immature blood cells in an organized structure. Click image to enlarge Red bone marrow is the active portion that produces red blood cells, while yellow bone marrow contains fat cells. In adults the red bone marrow ...
Bone Biopsy (Biopsy-Bone, Bone Lesion Biopsy) Procedure overview What is a bone biopsy? A biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope. A bone biopsy is a procedure in which bone samples are removed (with a special biopsy needle or during surgery) to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present. A bone biopsy involves the outer layers of bone, unlike a bone marrow biopsy, which involves the innermost part of the bone. There are 2 t...
Bone Densitometry (Bone Mineral Density [BMD] Test, Bone Density Test, Bone Mineral Content, Bone Absorptiometry) Procedure overview What is bone densitometry? Bone densitometry is used to measure the bone mineral content and density. This measurement can indicate decreased bone mass, a condition in which bones are more brittle and more prone to break or fracture easily. Bone densitometry is used primarily to diagnose osteoporosis and to determine fracture risk. The testing procedure measures the bone d...
Bone Scan (Bone Scintigraphy) What is a bone scan? A bone scan is a specialized radiology procedure used to examine the various bones of the skeleton. It is done to identify areas of physical and chemical changes in bone. A bone scan may also be used to follow the progress of treatment of certain conditions. A bone scan is a type of nuclear radiology procedure. This means that a tiny amount of a radioactive substance is used during the procedure to assist in the examination of the bones. The radioactive...
Breastfeeding Your Premature Baby
Breastfeeding Your Premature Baby Giving birth to a premature or other high-risk baby (or babies) does not mean you cannot breastfeed. Actually, the opposite may be the case. There is even more reason to provide your own milk for, and eventually breastfeed, a premature or a sick newborn. Providing your milk for your baby lets you participate in your baby's healthcare in a very crucial way. Because the benefits of mother's milk are so important to the high-risk newborn, you are able to do something for y...
Bone Marrow Transplantation in Children
Bone Marrow Transplantation in Children What is a bone marrow transplant? Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a special therapy for patients with certain cancers or other diseases. A bone marrow transplant involves taking cells that are normally found in the bone marrow (stem cells), filtering those cells, and giving them back either to the patient they were taken from or to another person. The goal of BMT is to transfuse healthy bone marrow cells into a person after his or her own unhealthy bone marro...
Bone Marrow To learn more about the intricate process of bone marrow transplantation, it is important to first learn about the blood and its components. Listed in the directory below you will find additional information regarding the anatomy of blood and bone marrow transplantation, for which we have provided a brief overview. Overview of Blood and Blood Components Bone Marrow Transplantation
Bicycle / In-Line Skating / Skateboarding Safety
Bicycle / In-Line Skating / Skateboarding Safety Bike riding, inline skating, and skateboarding are all great ways for kids to get exercise. But doing any of these without protective gear can be dangerous. One of the most common and serious injuries that can happen without protective gear is a head injury. Head injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in these types of crashes. Wearing a helmet can cut the risk for death or injury. A helmet can also cut the seriousness of the injury if a cra...
Bronchiolitis Click Image to Enlarge What is bronchiolitis? Bronchiolitis is an infection of the lower respiratory tract that usually affects children under 2 years of age. There is swelling in the smaller airways or bronchioles of the lung, which blocks air in the smaller airways. What causes bronchiolitis? The most common cause of bronchiolitis is a virus, most frequently the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, many other viruses have been involved, including: Parainfluenza virus Adenovirus In...
Breastfeeding Your Baby
Breastfeeding Your Baby Choosing how to feed your baby is an important decision that has lifelong effects for your baby and for you. What you have seen and learned about infant feeding from your family, friends, and teachers is likely to influence your attitude and perceptions. Whether you definitely plan to breastfeed or you are still uncertain, the research is pretty clear. Your milk is the best milk for your baby, and it is the ideal first food for your baby's first several months. Listed in the dire...
Bruises What is a bruise? A bruise is a collection of blood underneath the skin that is caused by trauma to an area of the body. The trauma causes tiny blood vessels, called capillaries, to break, and then blood leaks from the vessels into the surrounding tissue. Sometimes, enough bleeding occurs so that a lump also forms (this lump is called a hematoma). First-aid for bruises A bruise will usually heal on its own. Some general guidelines for treatment may include: Calm your child and let him or her kno...
Breastfeeding at Work
Breastfeeding at Work Employer support will be beneficial to successfully continuing breastfeeding. Discuss your plan to continue to breastfeed, and your need to pump or express breast milk during the workday, with your employer when you are pregnant or before you return to work. Be sure your employer understands that continued breastfeeding, and providing your milk by pumping at work, are not just good for your baby--they also are good for the company. Evidence indicates that employer support for conti...
Breast Milk Expression
Breast Milk Expression Most mothers who plan to continue breastfeeding will need to express their breast milk during the work or school day if away from the baby for more than three or four hours. They also may want to obtain milk to store for feedings by the care provider. Continued, routine breast milk expression is important to maintain adequate milk production during the time spent away from your baby. Listed in the directory below is some information regarding breast milk expression, for which we h...
Breastfeeding: Returning to Work
Breastfeeding: Returning to Work Breastfeeding preparedness before returning to work Make sure you give yourself enough time before you return to work. Start pumping or expressing milk for storage to use once you return to work. Initially, pump once a day. Early pumping sessions help your body learn to "let-down" to a pump, allowing you to store milk that the care provider can feed to your baby. Many mothers find the best time to pump is in the morning when milk production tends to be greater. Pump abou...
Breastfeeding When Returning to Work
Breastfeeding When Returning to Work Many mothers find they maintain milk production more easily if they breastfeed before showering or getting ready for work and then breastfeed again just before leaving the baby with the care provider. A new routine If possible, develop a pumping routine based on when the baby would normally breastfeed, especially when first returning to work. However, you, your baby, and your milk production will adjust to a new routine if you are able to pump often enough. Many moth...
Breastfeeding and Returning To Work
Breastfeeding and Returning To Work For a mother who is breastfeeding and returning to work, special preparation is needed. Listed in the directory are some considerations to make as you return to work, for which we have provided a brief overview. Maternity Leave Your Workplace Childcare Introducing a Bottle Breast Milk Expression
Birth Injuries What is a birth injury? Occasionally during the birth process, the baby may suffer a physical injury that is simply the result of being born. This is sometimes called birth trauma or birth injury. What causes birth injury? A difficult birth or injury to the baby can occur because of the baby's size or the position of the baby during labor and delivery. Conditions that may be associated with a difficult birth include: Large babies. Birthweight over about 4,000 grams (8 pounds, 13 ounces) P...
Breast Milk Collection and Storage
Breast Milk Collection and Storage There are general guidelines for breast milk collection and storage for the healthy baby. They may be used when obtaining milk via a breast pump for occasional "relief" feedings or when collecting milk during regular separation from the baby, such as during work or school days. The mother obtaining milk for an occasional relief feeding may want to consider learning the simple skill of hand expression. Generally, it is as effective as using a breast pump -- some mothers...
Breathing Problems What might breathing problems indicate in a newborn? Babies breathe much faster than older children and adults. A newborn's normal breathing rate is about 40 times per minute. This may slow to 20 to 40 times per minute when the baby is sleeping. The pattern of breathing in a baby may also be different. A baby may breathe fast several times, then have a brief rest for less than 10 seconds, then breathe again. This is often called periodic breathing and is a normal occurrence. Babies no...
Behavior Changes A change in behavior may be one of the first signs of illness in a newborn. It's normal for a baby's activity, appetite, and cries to vary from day to day, even hour to hour. But, a distinct change in any of these areas may signal illness. Generally, if your baby is alert and active when awake, is feeding well, and can be comforted when crying, occasional differences in these areas are normal. Consult your baby's doctor if you are worried about your baby's behavior. Some changes may ind...
Breastfeeding and Delayed Milk Production
Breastfeeding and Delayed Milk Production For the first 3 to 5 days after your baby is born, you will make a small amount of colostrum. Colostrum is a thick, rich milk that is high in nutrients. Around day 3 through 5, your milk will "come in". Here are some causes that may result in a delay of milk coming in: Severe stress Cesarean (surgical) delivery Bleeding after birth Maternal obesity Infection or illness with fever Diabetes Thyroid conditions Strict or prolonged bed rest during pregnancy If you ar...
Baby's Care After a Vaginal Delivery
Baby's Care After a Vaginal Delivery Healthy babies born by vaginal delivery are usually able to stay with their mothers. In many cases, immediate newborn assessments including weight and length, medication administration, and even the first bath, are done right in the mother's room. As quickly as possible, a new baby is placed in his or her mother's arms. In the first hour or two after birth, most babies are wide-awake and alert. This offers a wonderful opportunity for parents to get to know their new ...
Baby's Care After Birth
Baby's Care After Birth Learning to care for your baby is an exciting time, but it may come with many questions. Listed in the directory below is some information that will assist you in caring for your baby after birth. Baby's Care in the Delivery Room Baby's Care After a Vaginal Delivery Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery When a Baby Has Difficulty After Birth
Baby's Care in the Delivery Room
Baby's Care in the Delivery Room The birth of a baby is one of life's most wondrous moments. Few experiences can compare with this event. Newborn babies have amazing abilities. However, they depend on others for all of their needs -- food, warmth, and comfort. Great physical changes occur with birth. When the baby is delivered, the umbilical cord is cut and clamped near the navel. This ends the baby's dependence on the placenta for oxygen and nutrition. As the baby takes the first breath, air moves into...
Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery
Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery Most cesarean deliveries are done with regional anesthesia such as an epidural or spinal. With this type of anesthesia, only the lower part of the body is numbed for surgery. The mother is awake and able to hear and see her baby as soon as he or she is born. General anesthesia may be used in some special situations. With this, the mother is not conscious for the birth. A pediatric health care provider is often present when a woman gives birth by Cesarean. The baby i...
Bottle-Feeding Health considerations when bottle-feeding If you decide not to breastfeed, or are unable to breastfeed, commercial iron-fortified formulas can give your baby the nutrition he or she needs. Infant formulas have the right amounts of protein, calories, fat, vitamins, and minerals for growth. However, formula does not contain the immune factors that are in breast milk. The immune factors in breast milk help prevent infections and other medical conditions throughout a baby's life. Infants who ...
Breastfeeding: Getting Started
Breastfeeding: Getting Started Breastfeeding your child Breast milk is the perfect food for your baby. It gives your baby many advantages compared with formula. Your milk contains just the right amount of nutrients. And it is gentle on your baby's developing stomach, intestines, and other body systems. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) strongly recommends exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding means that your baby has only breast milk for 6 months. That means givin...
Breast Milk Is Best
Breast Milk Is Best Breast milk is the perfect food for your baby. It contains just the right amount of nutrients. It is also gentle on your baby's developing stomach, intestines, and other body systems. Benefits of breast milk You may know some of the reasons that breastfeeding is best for your baby. There are many reasons. Healthy nutrients Compared with formula, the nutrients in breast milk are better absorbed and used by your baby. These include sugar (carbohydrate) and protein. Breast milk has the ...
Bathing and Skin Care for the Newborn
Bathing and Skin Care for the Newborn Proper bathing and skin care for your newborn A newborn's skin is soft and delicate. Proper skin care and bathing can help maintain the health and texture of the baby's skin while providing a pleasant experience for both of you. Contrary to popular thought, most babies do not need a bath every single day. With all the diaper changes and wiping of the mouth and nose after feedings, most babies may only need to be bathed 2 or 3 times a week or every other day. Baths c...
Brain Abscess What is a brain abscess? A brain abscess is an infection in the brain that is encapsulated (confined within its own area) and localized to one or more areas inside of the brain. This condition may cause problems with the brain and spinal cord function. What causes a brain abscess? The more common causes of a brain abscess include viruses, fungi, and bacteria, with bacteria being the most common and much more significant cause. There are three ways a virus or bacteria can enter the body and...
Biophysical Profile (BPP)
Biophysical Profile (BPP) What is a biophysical profile (BPP)? A biophysical profile (BPP) is a test to check the health of your baby in the womb. The test combines a nonstress test (NST) with ultrasound. A NST measures your baby's heart rate as it moves around. An ultrasound is a test that uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of your baby on a computer screen. Biophysical profile testing is usually done in the last trimester of pregnancy. There are five parts to a BPP: The nonstress test ...
Bleeding in Pregnancy: Placenta Previa and Placental Abruption
Bleeding in Pregnancy: Placenta Previa and Placental Abruption Bleeding may occur at various times in pregnancy. Although bleeding is alarming, it may or may not be a serious complication. The time of bleeding in the pregnancy, the amount, and whether or not there is pain may vary depending on the cause. Bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy is quite common and may be due to the following: Miscarriage (pregnancy loss) Ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube)...
Breastfeeding Your High-Risk Baby
Breastfeeding Your High-Risk Baby Give your high-risk baby extra time to learn to breastfeed, and let the baby set the pace for learning. Learning to breastfeed effectively is a process that may take days or weeks for premature and many other high-risk babies. But you and your baby can become a breastfeeding team if you are patient and persistent, and maintain a healthy perspective. In the meantime, you may be able to pump breast milk from your breasts. Signs a baby is getting ready to nurse Let the doc...
Blood Circulation in the Fetus and Newborn
Blood Circulation in the Fetus and Newborn How does the fetal circulatory system work? During pregnancy, the fetal circulatory system works differently than after birth: The fetus is connected by the umbilical cord to the placenta, the organ that develops and implants in the mother's uterus during pregnancy. Through the blood vessels in the umbilical cord, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrition, oxygen, and life support from the mother through the placenta. Waste products and carbon dioxide from...
Breastfeeding the High-Risk Newborn
Breastfeeding the High-Risk Newborn Listed in the directory below is some additional information regarding breastfeeding a high-risk newborn, for which we have provided a brief overview. Breastfeeding Overview The Benefits of Mother's Own Milk Adding to Mother's Milk Milk Expression Milk Expression Techniques Milk Collection and Storage Delayed or Not Enough Milk Production Moving Toward Breastfeeding
Blood Types in Pregnancy
Blood Types in Pregnancy About blood types Every person has a blood type (O, A, B, or AB) and an Rh factor, either positive or negative. The blood type and the Rh factor simply mean that a person's blood has certain specific characteristics. The blood type is found as proteins on red blood cells and in body fluids. The Rh factor is a protein that is found on the covering of the red blood cells. If the Rh factor protein is present on the cells, the person is Rh-positive. If there is no Rh factor protein,...
Birth Injury What is a birth injury? Occasionally during the birth process, the baby may suffer a physical injury that is simply the result of being born. This is sometimes called birth trauma or birth injury. What causes birth injury? Birth injuries are more common when: The baby is large The baby is not head-first in the birth canal The baby is born prematurely or too early The size or shape of the mother's pelvis or birth canal makes it difficult for a normal vaginal birth Labor is difficult of very ...
Birth Defects Index
Birth Defects Index Many different types of birth defects place a newborn at higher risk and require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are some, for which we have provided a brief overview. Overview of Birth Defects Chromosomal Abnormalities Physical Abnormalities
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Copyright 2015. All rights reserved.